Sleep disorders that involve abnormal or disruptive movements or behaviors fall under the category of parasomnias. One of the most commonly known of these disorders is sleepwalking, which is a condition formally known as somnambulism. When a person sleepwalks, they don’t stay resting soundly in bed: Instead, they rise and unknowingly walk, sometimes performing complex activities such as unlocking a door or even driving a car. While they may appear to be awake, they are in a complete state of sleep while performing these actions. Studies have shown that an estimated 1 to 15 percent of people suffer from some degree of sleepwalking. While both adults and children of either gender may sleepwalk, it is more common in children.
In understanding why some people don’t stay in the comfort of their bed while sleeping, it’s important to first look at what causes sleepwalking and when it occurs. People who sleepwalk are in stage N3 of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. NREM sleep differs from rapid eye movement, or REM, sleep, which is the stage where people dream. Stage N3 is the deepest stage of NREM. Sleepwalking doesn’t have anything to do with the comfort of one’s mattress. In fact, it isn’t entirely known why it occurs; however, some researchers believe that it is caused when the brain attempts to jump from NREM to wakefulness.
Other conditions are also commonly thought to trigger sleepwalking in some individuals. These include using alcohol and other sedatives or taking hypnotics or certain medications used for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Mental disorders thought to increase the risk of sleepwalking include depression, which is said to increase one’s risk by 3.5 percent, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which can make one as much as four times more susceptible to somnambulism. Additional causes may include problems such as abnormal sleep breathing patterns, gastroesophageal reflux disease, restless leg syndrome, stress, and fever or fever-related illnesses. Because sleepwalking frequently occurs in people who have at least one parent with a history of sleepwalking, it is believed that genetics may also play a role in whether some individuals experience the disorder. Sleep deprivation and sleep apnea also potentially contribute to an increased risk.
People who sleepwalk may experience two or more episodes a month. During these episodes, they may be at risk of minor to severe injury while in the process of moving about. This is particularly true if they leave the home, as they may get lost or make their way onto a street where there are cars and other hazards. Inside the home, stairs can prove hazardous, as can engaging in activities that are dangerous, such as handling sharp objects.
When people first start sleepwalking, it is important that they see their doctor. A doctor can determine if there are any illnesses that may be causing it. There are ways to treat people who sleepwalk, but treatment is often unnecessary unless the behavior is ongoing or disruptive or one’s unconscious behavior indicates a heightened risk of injury. Often, children who sleepwalk will stop doing so by the time they become teenagers.
A doctor can help determine if treatment is necessary and what will be the most effective approach. Addressing any underlying causes is the first step. This may include starting or switching medications. Other steps may include self-hypnosis or waking up a person who regularly sleepwalks 15 minutes before an episode would normally start. This is called anticipatory waking, and the individual should be kept awake for approximately 15 minutes before being allowed to go back to sleep. Reducing stress and establishing a sleep routine that allows enough sleep time may also prove helpful.
To learn more about sleepwalking, click any of the links below:
- Researchers Find Genetic Link to Sleepwalking
- Sleepwalking Overview
- Health and Diseases: Sleepwalking
- Sleepwalking Symptoms and Risk Factors
- Sleepwalking Causes and Symptoms
- About Sleepwalking
- Somnambulism: Walking in Your Sleep
- Sleepwalking and Talking
- What Is Sleepwalking?
- More Than 8.4 Million Americans Sleepwalk Each Year, Study Finds
- Pediatric Sleepwalking
- Sleepwalking and Sleep Talking (PDF)
- Sleep Disorders and Treatment for Sleepwalking
- Treating Sleepwalking in Children and Adults
- The Science of Sleepwalking
- Why Don’t Sleepwalkers Stay in Bed?
- Sleepwalking Rates in the U.S. Much Higher Than Expected
- Why Do Some People Sleepwalk?
- Are Sleepwalking and Sleep Talking Dangerous?
- Health Check: Is Sleep Walking Problematic, and Can it Be Cured?
- Is it Dangerous to Wake a Sleepwalker?
- Why Do People Sleepwalk?
- Seven Things That Scientists Know About Sleepwalking
- Sleepwalking Facts, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
- Are We in the Dark About Sleepwalking Dangers?
- Parasomnias: Sleepwalking